Public debt is important for financing productive investment and national priorities in Pacific Island Countries (PICs). However, when debt exceeds sustainable levels, additional indebtedness undermines macroeconomic stability and eventually becomes an obstacle, making the borrower worse off. The experience of the Pacific region suggests that some countries have surpassed the limits of debt sustainability, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, as governments implemented stimulus and welfare measures. This policy brief discusses the role of fiscal governance in ensuring that debt sustainability remains at prudent levels. The policy brief draws on the findings of background papers and presentations delivered at the Pacific Regional Debt Conference, held in April 2022.